B.Com 1st Year Diagrammatic And Graphic Presentation Long Notes

B.Com 1st Year Diagrammatic And Graphic Presentation Long Notes :- In this post You will Find B.com Notes Study material Unit Wise Chapter Wise Topic Wise division of the content. This Post is very useful for all the Student B.A., B.Sc., B.Com., M.A., M.Com.


Q.1. Write a detailed note on various bar diagrams with suitable examples. 

Ans. Bar Diagrams or One-Dimensional Diagrams: Bar diagrams are the most common type of diagrams used in practice. A bar is a thick line whose width is shown merely for attention. They are called one-dimensional because it is only the length of the bar that matters and not the width. When the number of items is large, lines may be drawn instead of bars to economise space.

While constructing bar diagrams the following points should be kept in mind: 

(a) The width of the bars should be uniform throughout the diagram. 

(b) The gap between one bar and another should be uniform throughout. 

(C) Bars may be either horizontal or vertical. The vertical bars should be preferred because they give a better look and also facilitate comparison. 

Example: The sales of Chitra Prakashan (India) Pvt. Ltd. from 2010 to 2012 are given below: 

(d) While constructing the bar diagram, it is desirable (though not necessary) to write the respective number at the end of each bar so that the reader can know the precise value without Looking at the scale. This particularly happens when the scale is too narrow, for example, 1 on paper may represent 10 crore people. The two diagrams given below would clarify the difference. From Fig. (b) it is easier to make out the exact sales. 

In the following paragraphs we discuss the various types of bar diagrams in common use:

1. Simple Bar Diagrams: A simple bar diagram is used to show only one variable, e.g. production, ages, sales, etc. The values of the variable may relate to different years or different items. For example, wag production of sugar over a few years in a single country, or production of sugar in different countries an be shown with the help of this diagram. The bars are arranged in time sequence or the size of the variable. The length of each bar depends upon the size of the items. Such bars are very simple to construct and also to understand. Hence, they are popular. But their greatest limitation is that only ons category of data can be shown.

Example: Draw a bar diagram to represent the following figures relating to the manufacturing radios by five firms in a city:

Firms A B C D E
Number of radios 100 350 400 450 500
Year Credit Debit net+ Deviation
2005-06 16.2 23.1   6.9
2010-11 46.0 26.6 19.4  
2015-16 47.0 51.4   4.4

2. comparative Analysis: Information can be compared in terms of graphical representou Such comparative analysis helps for quick understanding and attention.

3. Less Cost: Information if descriptive involves huge time to present properly. It involves mom money to print the information but graphical presentation can be made in short but catchy view to make the report understandable. It obviously involves less COSE

4. Decision-making: Business executives can view the graphs at a glance and can make decision very quickly which is hardly possible through descriptive report.

5. Logical Ideas: If tables, design and graphs are used to represent information, then a logical sequence is created to clear the idea of the audience.

6. Helpful for Less Literate Audience: Less literate and even illiterate people can understand graphical representation easily because it does not involve going through line by line of any descriptive report.

7. Less Effort and Time: To present any table, design, image or graphs require less effort and time, Furthermore, such presentation makes quick understanding of the information.

8. Less Error and Mistakes: Qualitative, informative or descriptive reports involve errors or mistakes. As graphical representations are exhibited through numerical figures, tables or graphs, it usually involves less error and mistake.

9. A Complete Idea: Such representation creates clear and complete idea in the mind of audience. Reading hundred pages may not give any scope to make decision. But an instant view or looking at a glance obviously makes an impression in the mind of audience regarding the topic or subject.

10. Use in the Notice Board: Such representation can be hanged on the notice board to quickly raise the attention of employees in any organisation. 

Disadvantages of Graphical Representation of Data

Graphical representation of reports is not free from limitations. The following are the problems of graphical representation of data or reports:

1. Costly: Graphical representation of reports is costly because it involves images, colours and paints. Combination of material with human efforts makes the graphical presentation expensive.

2. More Time: Normal report involves less time to represent but graphical representation involves more time as it requires graphs and figures which are dependent on more time.

3. Errors and Mistakes: Since graphical representations are complex, there is each and every chance of errors and mistakes. This causes problems for better understanding to general people.

4. Lack of Secrecy: Graphical representation makes full presentation of information which may hamper the objective to keep something secret.

5. Problems to Select the Suitable Method: Information can be presented through various graphical methods and ways. Which should be the suitable method is very hard to select

6. Problem of Understanding : All may not be able to get the meaning of graphical representation because it involves various technical matters which are complex to generalne

e complex to general people. 

Q.4. What is false base line? Explain its utility in construction of granhaAns If the fluctuations in a dependent variable is less and the difference between its minimum value and zero is more, then for effective presentation of a graph, false base line is used. This can b value and zero is more, then for effective presentation of a gran done if, instead of shoving the entire scale from zero to the highest value nighest value involved, only as much 15 shown as is necessary for the purpose and that portion which lies between zero and the lowest is left out. In other words, the portion lying between zero and minimum necessary value of the variable is left out. In other words the portion lying between zero and minimum necessary value is omitted by tampering with the base line. This omission in the vertical scale starts with zero but after putting a false base line at a distance of about 1 or 2 cms, the scale gets a fresh start with a value equal (or nearly equal) to the smallest value of the variable. It is shown in figure (a):

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