B.Com 1st Year Indian Statistic Long Notes :-
LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
Q.1. What are the different methods for estimating national income?
Ans. The different methods for estimating natioulterent methods for estimating national income depends upon the availability of statistics. The popularly known methods are:
1. Output Method or Inventory Method: In this method. national income is calculated by adding the net values of goods and services in all branches of economic activity along with the net income from abroad, in it only final products are included to avoid double counting. It consists of finding out the market value of all goods and services that are produced by individuals an business enterprises during a specified period of time.
National income is calculated as: National income = Value of goods and services + Self consumption
+ Increase in stock – Depreciation of capital
– Income from abroad
This method is widely used in underdeveloped countries.
2. Income Method: This method consists of adding together all incomes by the way of wages, interests, rents and profits. It is based upon the data collected by income tax department or special studies relating to earnings of various occupational groups and to their family budgets. This method helps to calculate wages or salaries by private sector, interests, profit of public enterprises, net rents on land and houses etc. This method is suitable for those economies where proportion of tax payers is high and is not suitable in India because proportion of tax payer is very low.
3. Expenditure Method: According to this method the national income is equivalent to the total national expenditure, or the national income is equal to the sum of consumption and saving
where, Y= National income, C = Consumption, S = Savings.
This method is used less extensively because of non-availability of data that is
required for its calculation. There are no proper records of consumption, savings and expenditure in underdeveloped and developing countries.
It considered all facts, as these three methods are related to each other and lead to the same value of national income estimates. So these three methods behave as three angles from which national income of a country can be looked at.
Q.2. Write a critical note on agricultural statistics.
Ans. Agricultural Statistics: The economy of India is largely dependent on its or india is largely dependent on its agriculture which is a vital sector of economy. It is a most important economic activity and the need for a Comprehendsive and reliable system of agricultural statistics has a greater emphasis.
Agricultural statistics comprises of following heads:
1. Land Utilisation Statistics: It was available before 1950-51 under five categories_forests,
ted areas, fallow land, net area sown. This classification area not available for cultivation, uncultivated areas, fallow land, net area sow was insufficient to meet the needs of agricultural planning, so a nine-fold classification was adopted
In 1950-51 that include-forest, barren and uncultivable land, permanent pastures and grazing lands, cultivable waste, miscellaneous tree crops, current fallow, other fallow land, land put to nonricultural use and net area sown.
2. Crop Production Statistics. Such statistics: Such statistics relate to land under various crops and land put to other uses. The area under crop is obtained by two sources–official series based on village records and NSS series based on sample surveys. Official series relate to statistics of land utilisation giving the area of land put to different uses and the area under different crops. In it, the total country is divided into two categories-temporarily settled and permanently settled.
NSS series is based on sample surveys. It collects data in the form of rounds taken on a regular neriod that are conducted to collect data of area under different crops.
3. Livestock and Poultry Statistics: Livestock play an important role in the economic me country and its contribution forms the fourth major item in the national income.
The basic statistics comprise the data on number of different categories of livestock and pouny Estimates of some livestock products are obtained on the basis of sample surveys. The popular publications are-Indian livestock census, Indian livestock statistics, Agricultural statistics of India, Statistical abstract of India.
4. Forestry and Fisheries Statistics: Forestry is a major land use next to agriculture. Forest statistics are collected merely as by-product of forest administration and management. It includes the information relating to the volume of timber, round wood, the match and pulp wood, the bamboo, sandal wood, the charcoal and the lac, etc. Forest statistics include Abstract of Agricultural statistics, Forestry in India, Statistical Abstract of India, Annual Administrative Reports of forests Department of different states in India.
Fishery resources of India having a long sea coast and considerable inland water areas falls into two categories-marine and inland. India is one of the nine major fish producing countries in the world. Fisheries statistics is available only in the published reports of the department of fisheries, Madras and Bengal. Data for inland fisheries are collected by state fisheries departments. Sources of fisheries statistics are-Reports published by CMFRI Cochin, data collected by NSSO in the form of rounds, reports on the marketing of fish in the Indian Union and data collected by SFD.
Q.3. What are the different methods of census? Give its limitations and suggestions for improvement in forthcoming census.
Ans. The different methods of census are:
1. De-facto Method: In it, all the persons are counted in the area where they are physically found on the date of census. So, it is also called as ‘one night enumeration method’
2. De-jure Method: In this method, the population of each area is defined on the basis of persons who generally reside in the area irrespective of their actual location on the date of census. So, it is also called as periodical system of enumeration!
Limitations in Indian Census
There are following limitations in Indian census:
1. Lack of Comparability: The census statistics of our country is not comparable because of the differences in various concepts, geographical coverage, classification and tabulation in different census.
2. Insufficient Information about Age: There has been inaccuracy and insufficiency in data about age.
3. Lack of uniformity in Occupational Classification: There have been several changes in the Classification of occupations from census to census so there is lack of comparability in data.
4. Problem of Purdah System: This creates problem in getting correct information from women in a large part of the country.
5. Insufficient Remuneration: The people involved are neither given proper training nor are paid proper remuneration.
Different Basis for Wrong Information: There are various reasons for wrong and incorrect information in the census data, e.g. reduced income.
Suggestions for Improvement in Census
Following suggestions may be recommended to improve the forthcoming census:
1. There is need of providing proper motivation to enumerators so as to increase efficiency and bring maximum accuracy in data collection.
2. Female enumerators should be appointed to collect data from illiterate and purdah nashin ladies.
3. It is necessary that language of individual slip should be simple and the number of questions asked in it should be limited in order to make the data collection simple.
4. Uniformity should be maintained in technical terms so as to make the population statistics comparable at the international level. Also, the international standards should be followed in occupational classification.
5. The data of census should be declared and published in the final form at the earliest so that they may be properly used in various economic, social and the political aspects of decision making studies and researches.
6. Proper administrative arrangements should be made so that the work of census may be completed simultaneously in all the states and areas lying in the country.
7. Since, the level of accuracy of census is influenced by the level of public cooperation. So, proper awareness should be developed in public by media of publicity and communication so as to motivate them for giving cooperation and providing accurate and correct information.