B.Com Ist Year Regional Imbalances Question Answer Notes
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Q.14. What do you know about regional imbalances
India? What are its causes ? Suggest the measures removing regional imbalances.
What are regional imbalances ? Discuss the regional imbalances in India. What measures are adopted the Government to overcome this problem? (Meerut, 2014
Ans. MEANING OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE STUDY NOTES
All over the world, the level of economic development varies from state to state and region to region. When there exists wide differences in the per capital income of various states, it is called as some imbalanced regional development. But according to economists, an area should be considered backward or imbalanced developed only when potentials of the region have not been a exploited. But in the ultimate analysis, the growth is measured terms of relative income in various states. If there are wide differences in level of income among various states, it is regional imbalance which is the case in India. Some of states of the country are very developed while many others are in very backward condition.
INDICATORS OF REGIONAL IMBALANCES STUDY MATERIAL NOTES
The regional imbalances can be studied on the basis of the following indicators:
(1) Per Capita Income: Large scale disparities are found in the per capita income of various states due to imbalanced development of the country. Some of the states in India have vers high per capital income while the some states have very low per capita income. Some states such as Delhi, Maharashtra, Punjab, Haryana and Gujrat are the most developed states on the basis per capita income. On the other hand Bihar, Assam, Orrisa, Jharkhand are most backward state of India.
(2) Trends in Investment and Financial Assistance: Another important indicator of economic development is the level industrial development. Only a few states of the country industrially developed, while some others are very backward industrial development. About 37% of the total investment maps during the last decade in two states Gujarat and Maharashtra only.
On the contrary, Rajasthan, Assam, Orissa and Bihar attracted only 4%,0.7%, 2.2% and 1.2% respectively of the total investment,
(3) Infrastructural Facilities: If adequate infrastructural facilities have been developed in a region then certainly this area will witness rapid economic development. But in some regions sufficient infrastructural facilities are not developed. Therefore disparities can be seen in different regions. From the point of infrastructure/Punjab, Tamilnadu, Haryana and West Bengal is very strong,
(4) Social Infrastructure and Human Development: Wide disparities are observed in case of social infrastructure and human development among different states, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa are the most backward state from this point of view. Kerala and Tamil Nadu have achieved higher level of human development.
CAUSES OF REGIONAL IMBALANCES QUESTION ANSWER NOTES
The main causes of regional imbalances in India are as follows:
(1) Historical Factors : The backwardness of certain regions can be attributed to historical reasons. Under British rule, the areas which were unimportant for commercial and political interest, received less attention compared with other. Due to ignorance, these areas were not developed industrially and commercially and still lies in the state of backwardness.
(2) Geographical Factors: The hilly and desert region of the country could not be developed as it is very difficult to reach from one place to another place. Therefore several hilly states such as Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Assam, Nagaland etc. are still backward.
(3) Unequal Distribution of Resources: Natural resources like water, forest, soil, minerals are unevenly distributed in the different states of country. Therefore there exists a disparity between the development of agriculture and industries.
(4) Private Investment: Private investors invest money in those regions which possessed facilities for manufacturing and trading activities. Therefore most of the industries established in the developed areas and this increase the regional imbalances in the country
(5) Unequal Distribution of Economic Infrastructure: Many states of the country remain undeveloped due to poor infrastructure like roads, communications, irrigation, power, education etc. Absence of these facilities is one of the main causes of backwardness of some regions.
(6) Political Factor : Some state government paid mu attention to the industrial development of their regions. There these state get developed rapidly due to government initiation the other hand many others were more interested in poll intrigues and manipulations and thus remain undeveloped.
(7) Social and Factors: Cultural In India, certain rem are backward because of social and cultural factors. Illiteracy a barriers, fatalism, orthodox etc. are the main cause of backwardness of some regions.
(8) Foreign Assistance and Technological Factor: State which get foreign assistence, capital and technical knowledge developed rapidly. On the contrary, the states which do not get these facilities remain backward. The industrial development Maharashtra, Gurjat and West Bengal has been encouraged by these factors.
MEASURES FOR REMOVING REGIONAL IMBALANCES STUDY MATERIAL NOTES
(1) Development of Infrastructure: Electricity, water supply and roads should be developed adequately in all the regions so that backward areas can develop rapidly. It will help in reducing imbalances because when all these facilities will be provided in the undeveloped regions then all other segments of infrastructure and services sector will develop automatically.
(2) Special Assistance and Concessions : The government should provide special assistance and concessions for the establishment of industries in the backward areas such as concessions in sales tax, supply of electricity and land at cheaper rate etc.
(3) Special Development Programmers for Backward Regions : The special area development programmer should be launched for the development of backward regions. Projects for the development of natural resources can also be started with the help of these programmes.
(4) Development of Small and Medium Scale Industries: Small and cottage industries can be proved helpful in reducing the regional imbalances. Therefore emphasis should be given for establishment of small scale industries in the backward regions.
(5) Development of Social Infrastructure : Educate health services, training facilities etc. should be developed u backward regions. This will help in increase the productive these areas.
(6) Development of Public Sector : Government she establish its enterprises in the backward regions. Establishment of Public enterprises, would also increase the possibilities of new private industries in that areas. It will help in reducing the regional disparities.
(7) Good Governance: If government of the backward states to initiate and make local planning, then it will help in removing regional imbalance in the country. The State government of Karnataka, Delhi and Haryana have proved that state can march towards development through good governance.
Short Answer Questions
Q.1. Discuss the main causes of regional imbalances in India.(Kanpur, 2006)
Ans. See Page 63 and 64.
Q.2. Discuss the measures for removing regional imbalances.
Ans. See Page 64 and 65.
Q.3. How regional imbalance affects the development of a country?
Ans. The effects of regional imbalances on the development of a country are as follows:
(1) Unequal Distribution of Assets : Due to regional imbalances there exists unequal distribution of assets and income in the country.
(2) Difference in the Living of Standard : Imbalanced growth of country creates a heavy difference among the living of standard of people in the different regions. People living in developed areas have high standard of living in comparison to the people living in backward regions.
(3) Encouragement to Regionalism: When there becomes imbalance among the different regions. then it help to create the feelings of regionalism.
(4) Adverse Effects on Defense: Regional imbalance affects the security of the country adversely. At the time of war, alien country can make air attack easily on the industrially developed areas.
(5) Under-utilization of Natural Resources: Due to regional imbalances. natural resources of the country cannot be Tully utilized because in the backward areas natural resources remains untouched. This affects the development of a country adversely.