B.Com Ist Year Unemployment Question Answer
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Table of Contents
Short Answer Questions
- Discuss the different types or forms of unemployment in India.(Meerut, 2005)
Ans. In India there are several forms of unemployment, some of the important types of unemployment are as follows:
(1) Disguised Unemployment: This type of unemployment is seen in the agriculture sector. In the rural areas more than a fourth of the working population is not being productively employed. There are more than required people engaged in agriculture. If some of them are transferred to any other occupation, even then there will be no effect on agricultural production. Such excess engagement of labour on agriculture is called disguised unemployment. This is because, it seems that all are employed but in reality, some persons are unemployed.
It is also known as hidden unemployment or under employment. In under employment situation, a person does not get full employment according to his/her capacity, capability and qualifications. In such a case, the workers, of course, contribute to the production but not so much which they could have done.
(2) Seasonal Unemployment: This form of unemployment exists particularly in rural areas. In agriculture, work is not available to workers throughout the year. At the time of season, there are huge works, however during non-seasonal period workers remain unemployed. Such type of unemployment is called ‘seasonal unemployment. Seasonal unemployment also exist in seasonal industriese.g., sugar industry.
(3) Structural Unemployment : In our country, in comparison to labour power, the quantum of employment available is very limited. The economy in the country is structured in such a way that every year so many job opportunities are not opened that all the employment-seekers could be placed on the jobs. The main reason of we non-creation of so many opportunities of employment is that the economy is still in the underdeveloped condition and the speed of capital formation is slow. In our country, the problem of unemploywent would still remain existing for a long time.
(4) Cyclical Unemployment : Unemployment associates with the downswing of the trade is known as cyclical unempl ment. On account of its widespread nature it is the most ser cause of unemployment. This type of unemployment generally curs in capitalist developed countries.
(5) Industrial Unemployment: Due to rapid growth in dustrialisation and advancement of technology, many labour base works are now done by machines. This has reduced the demand workers. This is called industrial unemployment
(6) Educated Unemployment: When educated persons are not offered work according to their qualification and they have to an cept the engagement requiring low level of skill, such situation give result to educated unemployment.
Q.2. Discuss the various programmes which have been initiated by the government to solve the problem of un.employment.
Ans. Following programmes have been initiated by the Government to remove poverty and unemployment mainly in weaker sections of the society.
(1) Nehru Rojgar Yojna (NRY): This programme is named after Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. From the year 1989-90 NREP and RLEGP programmes was merged into a single programme which was known as Nehru Rojgar Yojna. Under this programme full employment opportunities to at least one member of each family living below the poverty line will be provided.
(2) The Swarna Jayanti Sahkari Rozgar Yojna (SJSRY): This programme was launched on 1.12.1997. The Centre and States will share the burden in the ratio of 75:25. The main aim of the scheme is to provide gainful employment to the urban unemployed people by encouraging up self employment venture or by providing wage employment.
(3) Prime Minister’s Rozgar Yojna (PMRY): This scheme was launched for educated unemployed persons. The main aim of PMRY is to provide self-employment to educated unemployed youth. It is proposed to provide more than a million persons by setting up of seven lakh micro enterprises. In 2009-10. 4.20 lakh employment opportunities have been generated under this Yojna.
(4) Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY) : Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana was launched on the 1st September, 2001. The main objectives of this Yojana are : (i) to provide opportunity of employment to surplus labour, (ii) to provide food security, (iii) development of community, social assets and economic assets, and (iv) development of the basic infrastructure. This Yojana has set a target of creating 100 crore man-days of employment. The
central and state governments will bear the cost of this project in the ratio of 87.5:12.5. In this Yojana part of wages are paid in terms of food. In 2006-07, number of person-days of employment generated under SGRY was 18.41 crore. In 2007-08, Rs. 2,800 crore has been provided for SGRY for providing rural employment in the districts not covered by the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.
(5) Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises: With a view to reducing unemployment, government has made special efforts to develop micro, small and medium enterprises. In 2009-10, as many as 659 lakh persons were employed in these industries. Special incentives are given to these enterprises in 11th Five Year Plan.
(6) Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) : Government enacted Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act in 2005. In 2006-07, this Act was implemented in 200 districts of the nation. It provides atleast 100 days of guaranteed wage-employment in every financial year to the poor persons living in rural areas to atleast one adult member in every household. In year 2008-09, this Act was extended to all 625 districts. The ongoing programmes of SGRY and National Food for Work programme have been merged in MGNREGA. In MGNREGA, 4.98 crore households were provided job in year 2012-13.
(7) Setting up Special Economic Zones (SEZs) : Government has passed SEZ Act in 2005. So far notifications have been issued for setting up 377 SEZs. Out of these 130 SEZs are operational. As on 31st December 2010, 6.44 lakh persons were getting employment in 130 operational SEZs. It is expected that by the end of 2014-15, 4 million additional jobs would be created in these zones.
(8) Stress on Labour Intensive Sectors: For creating more job opportunities labour intensive sectors like food processing, leather products, footwear, textiles, tourism and construction are provided more support and facilities by the government.
(9) Setting up Rural Self Employment Training Institute: For improving basic skills to undertake self employment by setting up micro enterprises, government has set up “Rural Self Employment Training Institute in each district of the nation. This Institute provides skill development training to rural youth.
2.3. Explain the extent of unemployment in India in
Ans. See Page 48 and 49.
Q.4. Discuss the effects of unemployment.
Ans. Problem of unemployment is a serious problem of India Its bad effects are as under:
(1) Loss of Human Resources : Unemployment leads to lose of human resources. Time of country’s labour force is wasted for want of employment. Its constructive advantage is not taken.
(2) Increase in Poverty: In a state of unemployment a manis deprived of all sources of income. Unemployment generates poverty People are unable to fulfill their basic needs. This lowers their standard of living
(3) Social Problems : Unemployment is also the cause of many social problems, such as, dishonesty, immorality, gambling, bribery, theft and robbery, etc. Unemployed persons engage in wrong deeds to make their livelihood. The economy goes out of gear, Government expenditure on maintenance of law and order goes up.
(4) Political Instability : Unemployment gives rise to political instability in the country. Unemployed persons are easily excited/provoked by anti-social elements. They lose faith in democratic values and peaceful means. They consider that such government is worthless which fails to provide them with work. They launch agitations and make protests against such government.
(5) Exploitation of Labourers : Labourers are exploited the maximum in a state of unemployment. Those labourers who are lucky to get employed have to work under adverse conditions at low wages. All this has bad effect on the efficiency of labourers.
In short, unemployment is the cause of economic exploitation social disorder and political instability. It is the duty of every government to minimise unemployment and create employment opportunities for maximum number of people.