Body Language B.Com 1st Year Long Study Notes

Body Language B.Com 1st Year Long Study Notes :- Unit Wise Chapter Wise Syllabus Study Material Notes Sample Model Practice Papers Available BCOM 1st Year Online Free Study Notes Non-Verbal Aspects Of Communicating. Body Language. Kinesics, Proxemics, Para Language, Effective Listening. Principles Of Effective Listening; Factors Affecting Listening Exercises; Oral, Written, And Video Sessions. Interviewing Skills. Appearing In Interviews. Conducting Interviews; Writing Resume And Letter Of Application.

Section B

Long Answer Questions

Q.1. Write down the various forms of ono-verbal communication and explain its effects.

Or What is non-verbal communication? Explain its nature and importance.

Ans. Non-verbal Communication: Refer to Sec-A, Q.1.

Types of Non-verbal Communication Notes

Kinesics (Body language): The academic study of body motions is called ‘kinesics’. It is actually the study of role of body movements in the form of facial expression, personal appearance, head movements, eye contact, body position or postures, gestures, body shape, smell and touch, etc. while undergoing the processs of communication.

It is a body language that actually plays an important role in the process of communication and making a particular communication process more effective.

2. Para Language: Para language includes the non-verbal factors like tone of voice, the emphasis on any particular sentences or words, the break up in the sentences, the speed of delivery, the degree of loudness or softness and the pitch of the voice, which affect the spoken words. It is the study of how a speaker actually verbalises. Voice quality and extra sound effects makes one’s speech or message more errective. Para language tells the communicators on how to communicate’ and not what to communicate.’

3. Proxem pace Language): Proxemics is the technical name for using the sense of space between the words in the sentence that a communicator is communicator. It is the subject that deals with the way people use the physical space to communicate.

Use of pause or space distancing plays a very vital role in the process of communication. Space distancing differs from one culture to another. Space distancing sometimes may be misconstrued and affect the communication and the message content.

  • Chronemics (Time Language): Chronemics is the technical name for the subject that deals with the way people use time dimension or time. Edward T. Hall was the first scholar who messa the importance of this element of interpersonal communication. It involves the meaning given to time dimension when we are communicating it to someone. Completion of task within a specific time span communicates sincerity, hardwork, loyalty and reliability whereas frequent late coming and absenteeism may communicate unreliability, laziness and disinterestedness of the person.

Nature of Non-verbal Communication Study Notes

Non-verbal communication is often used to supplement verbal communication by highlighting or reinforcing parts of a verbal message. Non-verbal communication is generally uncertain, both in meaning and in likelihood of receipt. The meaning of non-verbal communication is particularly ambiguous when it is inconsistent with a simultaneously transmitted verbal message.

The non-verbal communication could be done by the help of visual or aural (auditory) methods. Visual methods are those methods which are seen whereas auditory methods are those which are heard. The examples of visual method of non-verbal communication are signs, colours, pictures, etc. and on the other hand, examples of the auditory (aural) method of communication are visual, bells, horns, whistles, etc.

Importance of Non-verbal Communication Notes

Non verbal communication is distinct from oral and written communication. It takes place without the use of words. The most significant dimension of non-verbal communication is its universalitv. Unlike verbal communication, which has limitations in terms of reach, the non-verbal communication is universal in appeal. Although, all the non-verbal methods have instant effect because of quick perception by the receiver of the message. The time taken is very less to see a colour or a picture and to hear a horn or a bell than to speak out and understand or to read and understand words or sentences. Hence, the non-verbal methods of communication as being speedy in conveyance and response are very useful in many circumstances such as:

1. In the case of traffic signs and signals, non-verbal method of communication is the most effective and efficient method of communication and that too in masses, as it requires an immediate or instant response from the people who are walking or who are upon their

vehicles on roads.

2. In the case of visual advertisement on TV, it is found that TV advertisements are more effective and interesting as compared to Radio advertisements.

3. The only method of communication to the illiterate people is through non-verbal symbols, i.e.through non-verbal methods of communication.

4. Communicating for dangerous or harmful products required to denote them as harmful or cautious. In such a way, non-verba as harmful or cautious. In such a way, non-verbal communication is more effective and significant.

5. for conveying more quickly and more effectively, the reports whether commercial or non-verbal business requires charts and pie-diagrams to denote their results,method of communication is more effective and significant. 

6. For conveying ideas related to geography, such as onveying ideas related to geography such as mans and charts, graphs, etc. are absolutely necessary. For instance, the communicator could communicate more effectively and the receive may understand the matter because of non-verbal presentations in the compact form. 

Q.2. What do you understand by para language? Analyse the various elements. 

Or What do you mean by para language? What are their qualities and barriers:(2016) 

Ans. Para language: Refer to Sec-A, Q.5. 

Various Elements of Para language Study Material Notes

1. Voice: Voice is the important element of para language. The voice used by a speakeveals his education, training temperament and general background. Voice can be clear or uncleal, Pleasant or unpleasant cultivated or musical and so on. More clear the voice, the more neuve sale communication. The following aspects of voice are important in communication: 

(a) Speaking Speeds: A speaker may speak at different speeds on different occasions or during different parts of his speech. It is not desirable to speak fast and slow at all times. Speed should be such as to ensure fluency. Generally, easy parts of a message should be spoken fast because these can be easily understood. On the other hand, difficult or complicated parts should be presented at a slow speed. 

(b) Pitch Variation: Speaking at length on the same level of pitch makes the speech monotonous or boring. Therefore, wide variations in pitch are made during a speech. These variations in pitch are helpful in catching the attention of the listener and in maintaining his interest in speech. Generally high level officers speak in a high pitched voice, while lower level employees speak in low pitched voice. Similarly, an angry or excited person speaks in a high pitched voice. In order to improve one’s pitch variation, one should observe others speaking and learn from their suggestions. 

(c) Volume Variation: It means loudness of the speech. Volume variation puts life into our speaking. The loudness of voice should be adjusted according to the size of the audience. The larger the audience, the higher is the volume. While speaking, we should be loud enough to be audible but not too loud to put the audience off. 

(d) Pause: One cannot and should not go on speaking without pausing. But the pauses in a speech should be at right moments. A pause can be very helpful in emphasising the upcoming subject and in gaining the attention of the audience. However, too frequent pauses will spoil the speech. 

2. Word Stress: Proper word stress is highly important in communication. A the meaning by putting stress on a word here or a word there in the same sentence. For example, a different word is stressed in each of the following sentences:

(a) Have you read the new SYLLABUS? 

(b) Have you read the NEW syllabus? 

(c) Have you READ the new syllabus? 

(d) Have you read the new syllabus?

In each sentence, the same group of words is used, the stress on different words gives it a new meaning of everything which is spoken.

Similarly, we can change the meaning by stressing different parts of spoken words: 

(1) Record: (a) Record (Verb).

(b) Record (Noun). 

(ii) Convict: (a) Convict (Verb).

(b) Convict (Noun). 

A good speaker should not make proper stress on words or parts of words. One good way to improve one’s word stress is to listen to good speakers and participate in discussion. Another way is to listen to English news bulletin on radio and television.

The news readers are selected through a voice test. Therefore, their pronunciation is expect he widely intelligible and acceptable.

3. Mixed Signals: Mixing of signals in a message may change the meaning which can baffle the audience in arriving at the proper meaning. The speaker must take care of it and different signals should be communicated separately if and when necessary but their comingling is to be avoided.

4. Overall impression of Oral Communication: The study of para language reveals that in any communication process, both the speaker and the audience have some expectations and reservations which get fulfilled or realised provided the communication is effective. Therefore, a good speaker must be considerate enough in using various parameters of para language such as, quality of voice, pitch, volume and proper stress, etc. to ensure an effective communication. 


Advantages of para language are as follows: 

1. No oral communication is complete without para language. 2. A speaker’s educational background can be judged from his way of speaking. 

3. Para language of a person indicates his place on this hierarchical structure of the organisation. 

4. Knowledge of a person’s para language is helpful in dealing with him.

5. One can improve his para language by listening to good speakers.


Limitations of para language are as follows:

1. Para language is like language but not language. Therefore, we cannot fully rely on it. 

2. Unless the listener is open minded, voice quality, speaking speed, pitch, etc. may prejudice him, causing poor listening. 

3. Speakers belong to different speech communities due to which uniformity becomes difficult. 

Q.3. What is effective listening? Give the advantages and guidelines for effective listening. 

Ans. Effective Listening: Refer to Sec-A, Q.9.

Advantages: Advantages of effective listening are as follows:

We usually listen (1) to obtain information, (ii) to solve problems, (iii) to share experiences and (iv) to persuade or dissuade.

It is easy to imagine that if people were bad listeners, (i) only inaccurrate and incomplete Information would be exchanged, (ii) problems would not be clearly understood and would remain unsolved. (in they would not be able to share one another’s experience and (iv) on account of being unable to understand each other through their own or others inattentiveness, they would not be able to persuade or dissuade others. In addition, the following advantages of listening can be easily listed:

1. Listening Helps to Know the Organisation: Listening, especially careful listening to the sapevine will enable us to know what the members of the staff think of the company’s policies and cavities. Hence it will help us to understand our organisation better.

2. Listening Helps to Make Better Policies: If we listen to our subordinates carefully we will know which policies are suitable for our organisation. We will not keep stumms policy to another. We will chalk out the policies which are acceptable to other win their willing supports.

3. Listening Mollifies the Complaining Employees: Very often employees which exist more in their mind than in reality. i.e. which are primarily psychological. If we listen to them patiently and sympathetically, their anger will subside and they will leave mollified.

4. Listening is Important for the Success of the Open Door Policy: Many mana the fact that they belie t they believe in the open door policy, i.e. they always keep their door open for the employees to walk into their room and talk to them. No doubt, their door is always open, but they are themselves bad listeners. So their employees are inhibited to talk freely. The result is a total failure of upwoard communication. But if we as a manager, listen sympathetically, our employees will be encouraged to talk and there will be free upward communication.

5. Listening Helps to Spot Sensitive Areas before they become Explosive: In an engineering firm, the management decided to meet the workers union regularly whether or not were any problems to sort out. The result was that they began to listen to each other well for the same. They were able to spot sensitive areas and find out solutions before they became explosive and many other problems which could have led to serious disputes just did not arise.

Guidelines to Effective Listening: Guidelines to effective listening are as follows: 

1. Listen patiently to what the other person has to say even though you may believe it to be wrong or irrelevant. Indicate simple acceptance (not necessarily agreement) nodding your

head or perhaps interjecting an occasional’um-hm’, or ‘I see! 

2. Trying to understand the feelings of the person is expressing as well as the intellectual content Most of us have difficulty in talking clearly about our feelings. So careful attention is required. 

3. Restate the person’s feelings, briefly but accurately. At this stage you simply serve as a mirror and encourage the other person to continue talking. Occasionally, make summary responses such as you think you are in a dead-end job, but in doing so keep your tone neutral and try not to lead the person to your pet conclusions. 

4. Allow time for the discussions to continue without interruption and try to separate the conversation from more official communication of company plans. That is, do not make the conversation any more `authoritative’ than if already is by virtue of your position in the organisation. 

5. Avoid direct questions and arguments about facts, refrain from saying, “That is just not so “Hold on for a minute, let’s look at the facts, or Prove it’ You may want to review the evidence later, but a review is irrelevant to how the person feels now. 

6. When the other person does touch upon a point you do want to know more about simply repeat statements as a question. For instance, if he remarks, Nobody can break even on his eynense account’, ‘You can probe by replying, You say no one breaks even on expenses’? With this encouragement, he will probably expand on his previous statomi 

7. Listen for what is not said evasions for pertinent points or perhaps too recliches. Such an omission may be a clue to a bothersome fact that the person wishes common clich

were not true. 

8 If the other person appears genuinely to want your view point, be honest in your reply. Buat the listening stage try to limit the expression of your views repress what the other person says. 

9. Don’t get emotionally involved yourself. Try simply to understand first and differ evaluation until later.

10. Listen ‘between the lines. A person does not always put everything that is important into words. The changing tones and volume of his voice may have a meaning like his facial expression, the gestures he makes with his hands and the movements of his body. 

11. Better results can be achieved if the superior gives less emphasis to explaining and more emphasis to listening. 

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