B.Com 1st Year Indian Statistic Short Notes :-
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
Q.1. Define national income. Discuss its utility.
Ans. National income is defined as the net total of commodities and services that are produced by the people comprising a nation. It is the money value of the flow of commodities and services excluding imports becoming available for sale within the period. Thus, sum of the employees compensation and the net income from property and entrepreneurship that is the distributed factors income represents the national income of the country. It is the value of commodities and services produced during a particular period counted without duplication.
National income is a barometer of the economic progress and its utility can be discussed as:
- It gives a correct picture of the structure of the economy of the nation and the distribution of income according to regions.
- National income figures are inevitable for economic planning and no balanced economic development is possible in the absence of national income estimates
- National income estimates are the indicator of standard of living of the people. Per capita income is computed to study about the changes of the standard of living.
- National income estimates are useful in inter-sectoral and interregional comparisons. So, for balanced economic growth, there should be no disparities in the distribution of incomes in various regions of states.
- National income statistics provide a useful guideline in formulating budget of a country
- National income estimates are useful in comparing the economic conditions of a country for a period.
- National income figures are used to study the problems of economically underdeveloped countries.
- Such data are employed to evaluate the progress and performance of plans of economic development.
Q.2. What are the problems faced in the estimation of national income?
Ans. The problems that are faced in our country in the estimation of national income are:
1 Non-organised and non-monetised sector creates difficulty in the calculation of national income. The commodities and services produced in subsistence sector are exchanged for other goods or are kept for personal consumption.
- Simultaneous use of income method and production method leads to under-estimation of income method and production method leads to under-estimation of income and over-estimation of production and the data becomes less reliable.
- Since, people are mostly illiterate and do not keep any accounts in developing countries so, only crude estimates are possible.’
3. Since, people are mostly illiterate and do not keep any accounts in developing countries so,
only crude estimates are possible.’
4. National income estimates fall to measure adequately the changes in output due to the changes in the price level.
5. People are busy with multifarious activities in underdeveloped countries due to of occupational specialisation that leads to a confusion in calculating national income.
6. Only commercially produced goods and services are used to find the national income and the value of locally produced goods are not included in national income estimates.
7. The international comparison of national income is inaccurate and misleading as the currency of different countries are different and their exchange rates are also almeren.
Q. 3. Write a short note on industrial statistics.
Ans. Industrial Statistics: Today, the economic development of a country is measured by its industrial development and this can be done in the presence of data related to various aspects of industry. Liberalisation is an important step in this field. There is need to collect and publish industrial statistics for the planning and development of industries.
The history of industrial statistics begins from the year 1942 when the Industrial Act, 1974 was passed. This act empowered the State Government to collect the statistics of industries that engage 20 or 10 workers if any power is used in an industry. This act was passed in 1942 but came into effect in 1945. The first census of manufacturing industries was conducted in 1946 and the results were published by the central government. From 1959, the census of manufacturing industries was discontinued and annual survey of industries was started under the flagship of NSSO. The results of annual survey of census are published by C.S.O. while for the sample sector, they are published by NSSO itself.
Data collected under ASI relate to capital structure, employment of wages, inputs, outputs, stocks installed capacity, power equipment, sales and research.
Different publications for industrial statistics are:
1. Monthly abstract of statistics (C.S.O.)
2. Statistical abstract of Indian Union (C.S.O. Annual)
3. Monthly statistical bulletin, Indian cotton textile industry.
4. Monthly Jute Bulletin (I.C.J.C., Calcutta).
5. Indian Sugar (Sugar Manufacturing Association),
Q.4. What do you know about trade statistics of India?
Ans. Trade statistics of India are divided under three heads:
1. Foreign trade statistics.
2. Index numbers of foreign trade.
3. Internal trade statistics.
In India, there is no reliable system responsible for the collection of foreign trade statistics. This 15 the by-product of official administrative data of the nation. Basically, there are three sources for collection of foreign trade in India:
(a) Excise and custom department.
(b) Foreign postal service department.
(c) ” Check post situated at India-Nepal border.
It is necessary to take permission from excise and custom department for the export or import of y commodity and this permission is granted only when the necessary papers containing details of items are submitted. On the basis of these details, excise and custom department collects, compiles and publisher the data.
The publications responsible for foreign trade statistics are:
1. Journal of Industry and Trade.
2. Statistical Abstract of India.
3. Reserve Bank of India Bulletin.
4. Indian Trade Journal.
5. Accounts relating to the foreign trade and navigation of India.
Q.5. Describe the organisation and functions of C.S.O. in India.
Or What are the main functions of C.S.O.?
Ans. C.S.O. was established in May 1951 by Central Government under cabinet secretaries with the objective of creating coordination of large variety of statistical information which is collected at the centre and state levels.
organisation of C S.0 : CSO is headed by a Director General who is assisted by Directors, 28 jOINT Directors18 deputy directors, 55 Assistant directors and supporting staff. It is located in Delhi and the major portion of its work is carried out in calcutta.
The organisation of C S.0 is divided into five main divisions that have been divided again in 16 sub- divisions. Five main divisions are: Industrial statistics and plan coordination division, Prices and cost of living and data bank division. Economic. Census, Training and NSSO Coordination division, National Accounts Division and Computer Centre division.
Functions of C.S.O.: The main functions of C.S.O. are as follows:
1. C.S.O. coordinates the data collected by statistical units in different ministries and state governments to bring uniformity in data. 2. C.S.O. lays down ideal definitions and standards with a view to improve the real level of data and to increase comparability,
3. C.S.O. regularly supplies data about the progress of a country for publication to international bodies.
4. C.S.O. advises on statistical matters to various ministries and statistical departments.
5. C.S.O. organises statistical conferences every year at the central and state level.
6. It undertakes important studies related to economic planning in the country.
7. It makes annual estimates of population on the basis of census and vital statistics.
8. It organises short term statistical training programmes for statistical officers, students and foreign nationals.
9. It has introduced economic census to collect data related to unorganised sector of non agricultural economy.
Q.6. Evaluate the working of C.S.O.
Ans. C.S.O. is playing an active and increasing role as apex statistical organisation of the country. It has divided its organisational structure into 16 divisions so as to fulfil its various responsibilities. The criticisms that are levelled in respect of its working are:
1. C.S.O. tries to dominate by making unnecessary interference in the functioning of various statistical departments of Central and State Governments.
2. C.S.O. brings coordination between different statistical organisations in eteness in coordination as there is different data available from different sources.
3. C.S.O. has introduced a number of training programmes that are inades the vast requirements of the country.
4. Publication of data is delayed in many cases that reduces their utility
5. C.S.O, has not been able to provide the necessary direction to various statistical units that are working at state level leading to the use of different definitions and standards at different levels.
Q.7. What is meant by population census? Give its features.
Ans. Population Census: Census means counting of people. Population census may be defined as the total process of Collecting, compiling and publishing demographic, economic and social data pertaining at a specified time to all persons in a country or territory as according to a repo Nations Organisation.
Features of Population Census
The main features of the process of population census are as follows:
1 Universality means that census include every person who is a citizen of the counter
2. Regularity, 1.e. census is held regularly after a gap of certain fixed period for instance, census is organised after every 10 years.
3. Well-defined Territory: A population census refers to a well-defined geographical or the pontical territory.
4 Simultaneous Collection of Data: The entire set of data collected at the time of population census refers to a particular point or period of time.
5. Government Sponsorship: Since census requires a vast organisation and money it can be properly organised by the government only. Moreover, data of census is published in very large details.
Population census was organised as early as in the period of Kautilya in 4th century B.C. but historical studies reveal that census was in practice during the period of King Ashoka also. The first population census was held in 1853 in North-West Frontier Province.
Q.8. Give suggestions for improvement of national income statistics.
Ans. National income committee gave the following suggestions for the improvement of national income statistics:
1. The reporting agency should be introduced in all non-reporting areas in the field of agriculture and the present area reporting should be such that the primary reporter cover one-fifth of the village every year.
2. Statistics of occupational distribution should be improved and the relating classes should be made clear-cut.
3. Available data relating to employment should be improved and brought out on a regular basis.
4. Structural studies should be undertaken with regard to animal husbandry, trade transport and small enterprises.
5. Union government should take measures for bringing about uniformity in the reporting of statistics relating to sales-tax.
6. Statistics regarding wages, salaries, provident fund, etc. should be collected more regularly and systematically.
7. Committee felt that there were many gaps in the Income tax data due to evasion and its recommended the improvement of these statistics.
8. Committee suggested that there should be a proper coordination of statistics collected by different agencies.
9. Committee suggested that there should be a strong coordination between the activities of NIC and NSS.
Q.9. Give the names of four non-government statistical organisations.
Ans. The four non-government statistical organisations are:
1. Indian Statistical Institute (I.S.I.).
2. Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute (IASRI).
3. Institute of Economic Growth (IEG).
4. Institute of Research in Medical Statistics (IRMS).
So, these non-government statistical organisations include the statistical-cum-economic agencies that are outside the government constituted under the statutory prorovisions..