B.Com 1st Year Self Development And Communication Long Question Answers Notes
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LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
Q.1. State the meaning and objectives of self-development self-development and communication.
Or ‘Self-development improves communication and communication improves self-development’. Explain.
Or What do you mean by self-development? How self-development contribute to effective communication? (2016) (2018)
Or Write an essay on the interrelations of communication and self-development.
Ans. Meaning of Self-development: Self-development is made up of two words: Self and Development. The term ‘Self’ means totality of the knowledge of an individual about his or her persona qualities. It includes physical, intellectual material and spiritual qualities. The term development means to maintain and increase. Thus, self-development means the development of an in an individual. Development of self’ is the most important part in this process.
Objectives of Self-development: These are as follows:
1. Development of Self-confidence. Self-development develops self-confidence in an individual. It helps in developing leadership and entrepreneurship. He bears the risks of life more common
2. Development of Rationality: Self-development makes a person rational. It develope of co-ordination, co-operation and compassion. He takes more rational decisions.
3. Development of Thoughts and Habits: Self-development brings a change in the thinking and living. It saves time, money and energy. It makes him more resourceful.
4. Development of Organisational Ability: Self-development helps in the development of organisational and managerial ability. It leads him to put organised efforts in the life.
5. Development of Personality: Most important object of self-development is the balanced and harmonious development of one’s personality. In this reference, personality refers to the set of attributes reflecting the nature and behaviour of an individual.
6. Development of Positive Attitude: Self-development is the cause and effect of positive attitude. Attitude is a tendency to respond to certain persons, objects and situations, whether positively or negatively. Self-development saves a person from negative attitude and develops his positive attitude. It makes him cheerful and optimistic.
7. Development of Self-esteem: Self-development leads to the development of self-respect. Self respect means how do we think and feel about ourself. Self-development motivates a person to evaluate himself on the basis of his qualities and behaviour.
8. Development of Knowledge: Self-development leads to intellectual development also. It develops the ability to learn, understand and analyse. It makes him more confident and dynamic.
Interdependence between Self-development and Communication
Self-development Improves Communication
1 Improvement of Communication Skills: Self-development helps in the development of communication skills like writing, speaking, listening and gesture making, etc. Self-development makes a person more educated, qualified and fit. Being so, he can write, listen and speak in more effective way.
2. Improvement of Analytical Power: Self-development enables a person to analyse and interpret given situations. It increases his ability to communicate effectively in different situations. He can analyse his audience properly.
3. Widens the Vision: Self-development widens the vision of an individual. He can understand and analyse the things in a better way. It enables him to contemplate different communications.
4. Improvement of Critical Skills: Self-development leads to the development of critical skills like planning, revising, editing, etc. It enables him in evaluating the message correctly.
5. Improvement Other Qualities: Self-development improves all qualities and abilities of an individual. It enables him to communicate more effectively following seven C’s in his communication:
Completeness, Conciseness, Consideration, Concreteness, Clarity, Courtesy and Correctness.
Communication Improves Self-development Study Notes
1. Non-verbal Communication and Self-development: Non-verbal communication (body language) stimulates the mind and help in self-development. It increases intellectual and understanding power of a person. Channels of non-verbal communication are interesting as well as directional.
2. Written Communication and Self-development: Written communication has its own role in self-development. Writing makes a man creative, imaginative and productive. These operations are very helpful in self-development.
3. Oral Communication and Self-development: Channels of oral communication like discussion, speech, meetings, seminars, group discussion, etc. are very helpful in self-development. One has to think deeply, prepare arguments and find facts so that he may convince others. It increases the knowledge and understanding of speaker.
4. Listening and Self-development: Listening is an important part of effective communication. A wise businessman listens patiently and carefully and tries to get gainful advise and fruitful opinion. It increases his personality and adds to the effectiveness of communication.
Q.2. What is meant by attitude? Also explain the elements and various functions of attitude.
Ans. Attitude: Refer to Sec-A, Q.2.
Elements of Attitude: There are three elements of an attitude:
1. Cognitive Component: It refers to one’s opinion or viewpoint towards a certain subject which exists in the form of a statement. If one has a favourable opinion about an individual, a thing or an ideology, his attitude would be a favourable one. But on the contrary side, his viewpoint would be negative.
For example, if a consumer is of an opinion that inflation is the result of a soaring demand of the commodity, his viewpoint is rational.
2. Feeling Component: It refers to a feeling for something. It is an important aspect of a viewpoint.
3. Action Component: It refers to an action taken in accordance with some opinion or feeling or thought. It is a tendency of doing something on impulses or rationales. An action component also articulates the faith, belief or perception of a person.
Obviously, these three types of triology constitute an attitude.
(a) Impulses and feelings on a subject.
(b) Positive or negative feeling on a subject.
(c) Present and past information about an action taken on a subject.
Functions of Attitude Notes
The functions that pertains to attitude can be described as below:
1. Knowledge or Object Appraisal Function: The attitude of a person is always helpful to him in understanding of an individual and the environment itself. For example, our opinion on cold drink and a Mathematics class–as it is obvious that we like cold drink but want to evade the period of Mathematics. This aspect clarifies the action component as well as an attitude towards an object (attitude object), by the help of which we can react effectively and successfully with a person.
2. Personality Expressive or Social Identification Function: This function helps a person to express his opinion about himself, his own thoughts and about his favourable or otherwise point of view on some object. In addition, it also helps the person to establish a rapport with other individuals. The attitude of a person helps to understand his complete personality, however certain opinions are formed and certain ones are acquired. An individual, by exercising his opinion, learns something by means of listening or discussing and his attitude can be, thus, evaluated and analysed.
This point of view is quite helpful to us in understanding and analysing a context of something and the analysis made by us also reflects the essence of the subject.
This kind of analysis may include ourselves, other persons, active objects and events, and opinions, etc. Our attitude in some cases may be either positive or negative. As such two kinds of factors can check and regulate our opinion in the context of some subject:
- Positive vs Negative effect
- Seeking vs Avoiding contact
A positive attitude yields an authentic analysis of a subiect. It generates a positive tendency and a favourable treatment. It seeks moving forward to know more on the subject. Similarly, a post a constructive attitude determines a right analysis, which can be developed by means of a processo persuasion.
In fact, in case of persuasion or inspiration or motivation, is such a phenomeno to the formation of attitude which can be altered changed and modified according to the situation or prevailing conditions. As such, formation of attitude or opinion is subject to modification and adaptation as the situation warrants.
Q.3. How development of positive attitude help in better communication in business? Discuss. (2018)
Ans. Attitude is the yardstick of a personality and is an important factor in effective commumcare It is attributed to one’s ideology and perception. An individual’s aptitude is his attitude. A pour attitude yields an authentic analysis of a subject. It generates a positive tendency and a favourable treatment.
A positive attitude helps to give a proper direction to the functioning, such an attitude always pays everywhere in the long run. It can be made more amenable by means of careful planning, meditation and repetition. It is a peculiar characteristic of one’s personality that can provide an answer to the most complicated issues.
Development of a positive attitude helps to communicate better. It exerts its influence on the subjectmatter and its presentation in the process of communication. With communication, an individual can develop a positive attitude as he acquires knowledge through mutual understanding, personal interaction, acquiring information about important events and every thing that affects his personal attitude. So, development of positive attitude raises professional skills and cordial relationships which further help in better communication in business..
Q.4. Discuss ‘SWOT analysis’ in detail.(2014)
Or What are the basic elements of SWOT analysis? Explain.
Ans. SWOT analysis is an evaluation process of external and internal factors through the process of communication which is also termed as empirical analysis. This analysis is based on observations and experimentation which acts like a strategic management.
SWOT is derived from an acronym of four English letters:
S Strengths W Weaknesses
O Opportunities T Threats
SWOT analysis is applied in laying down the policies of large organisations. An organisation, on the basis of SWOT analysis, can make a relative/comparative survey of its own strengths, weaknesses. opportunities and threats. On the basis of SWOT analysis, a business organisation by exploiting its strengths and opportunities, can achieve its multifaceted goals, by overcoming its weaknesses and rendering its threats innocuous. In fact, SWOT analysis trains us in deriving the maximum benefit from the opportunities and the strengths. It is also identified with the term (WOTS-UP).
According to the above analysis, a successful organisational policy is when a business organisation exploits all its resources and strengths and avails all its opportunities, and by combating all its weaknesses and vulnerabilities, in such a manner that all its threats are rendered innocuous and ineffective.
In other words. SWOT analysis is a technique that enables a business organisation to make the best use of its strengths on the basis of the opportunities and by doing so, an organisation can keep the possible threats at bay by overcoming its vulnerable areas.
1. Internal Factors: These are the factors which are available with both, an organization and an individual. These can be divided into two parts for analysis:
(a) Strengths: Every individual and every organisation possesses some strengths or characteristics or peculiarities. These peculiarities are known as positive points, such as right pronunciation or right accent in communication, vocabulary, language, command and grouprus , etc., are the positive qualities which fascinate their audience and in course of discussion or debate, satisfying the audience with clear and valid explanation to their queries, etc. are the major strengths. Therefore, an effective personality becomes the strength in an organizational communication,
(b) Weaknesses: Like strengths and positive assets, there are certain weaknesses in every individual or an organisation. Identifying weaknesses and marking them is an important factor. These shortcomings are known as ‘negative points, such as faulty and erroneous pronunciation fast or impatient articulation, inability in drawing other attention and faulty or casual-listening as an audience, etc.
Non-seriousness or a casual approach towards communication in a business organisation role conflict in a group discussion, etc. are the main weaknesses.
2. External Factors: The factors existing outside, such as supplier, competitor, imported goods, government and committees, etc. are divided into two parts. These are also identified as opportunities or threats.
(a) Opportunities: In any business, it is essential to avail opportunitiee In the career business organisation, professional or an individual, there is a plethora of
opportunities which can be transformed to destinations. In other words, the opportunities are the gateway to one’s destination.
(b) Threats: Society and external environment give rise to threats. Every organization, business, profession or an
individual has to go through a series of difficultie success. In fact, these threats give way to opportunities, such as discovery of new means of communication, e.g. internet, e-commerce and e-banking etc.
Q.5. Glve applications of SWOT analysis on Indian higher education
Ans. The applications of SWOT analysis on Indian higher education are as follows:
(a) In the area of higher education in India, several institutions have been awarded as deemed Universities.
(b) Human Resources Development includes higher education of children and is the cause of existence of a progressive and prosperous community.
(c) Higher education has established and proved itself as an instrument of social change.
(d) The quality of higher education is evaluated by UGC, NAAC and AICTE.
(e) Higher education in India enjoys international/global recognition.
(a) The higher Indian educational institutions are the islands of academic excellence.
(b) There is a lack of uniform fee structure in the higher Indian educational institutions.
(c) In higher education in India, there is no yardstick of evaluating the academ students.
(d) There is a lack of uniformity or parity in providing opportunities for higher educational institutions in India.
(e) In India, in most of the higher educational institutions, the system of juunga academic excellence is not free from weaknesses.
The syllabi in such higher academic institutions should be recommended in view of various
exams conducted by HPSC/NET/SET, etc.
(b) The higher educational institutes in India should be accorded recognition on the basis of NAAC’s recommendations.
(c) In higher Indian academic institutions the students receive ‘step-mother or client treatment.
(d) The elite Indian academic institutions must avail the benefits of ‘Information Technology.
The higher academicinstitutions in India should be unified in the areas, such as health, maintenance, poverty appraisal and employment, etc.
The above flows and shortcomings in the higher educational institutions are increasingly tending to be controversial, for the question is not of just survival or the results of examinations but of quality, excellence and the standard of education in terms of evaluation.
The efforts to update the syllabi, prescribed by the UGC are limited to the main subjects.
The area of research as in Ph.D. studies is not done on a large scale and these institutions are just producing quantity rather than quality.
In higher Indian academic institutions, generally the students pursue ‘Traditional Courses’ without any tangible objective and motivation.
The development of higher education in India is conspicuous only in terms of physical and tangible expansion instead of quality of academic excellence. A degree must articulate intellectual excellence but this is not the case here.
Several departments in the higher educational institutions are being run just for the sake of survival, in fact there is no valid reason of their continuation.
Q.6. What is the importance of SWOT analysis? Give the main criticisms of SWOT analysis.
Ans. Importance of SWOT Analysis: Policy and decisions are based on reality. Any organisation, a profession and an individual needs a platform to rest upon and create favourable conditions SWOT analysis plays an important role in a commercial setup. In briet, the uses of SWOT analysis can be described as under:
- Internal Factors and its Analysis: Any organisation, any profession or any individual always analyses his competence. Competence or incompetence can be analysed on the basis of strengths and weaknesses. From organisational point of view, competition, Govt. policies, research and development human resources development, and organisational strengths, etc., are the points for analysis.
2. External Factors and its Analysis: It refers to the extes outside around a business organisation or an individual the chance are inevitable but converting such threats into opportunitie is possible through SWOT analysis.
3. Mission and Objectives: SWOT analysis is a method to organisation. The analysis of internal and external factors and the am perpetual concern because opportunities and threats and strengths and weaknesses analysis can yield the desired positive results.
4. Continuous Process: It is a continuous phenomenon in any Organisation, profession and with every individual and is a perpetual activity like the wheel of time. New challenges and threats are ever emerging and new opportunities are explored to counter those threats.
5. Work Culture and its Development: SWOT analysis is a technique to study the established conventions on the basis of ground realities in order to achieve the mission and objectives of a business enterprise. As a consequence. SWOT analysis exerts a tremendous influence on an sama com, a profession and an individual.
6. Creative Process: By identifying the area of threats and to explore new strategies to counter the threats and to convert the threats into opportunities, is a creative process. SWOT analysis is a process that depends on a careful planning and considerable deliberation. It remains ineffective in case of imaginary or romantic strategies.
To sum up, SWOT analysis helps in taking stock of the situation, taking appropriate decision in a business organisation. After taking into account the internal as well as external factors, to identify certain areas of opportunities, threats, strengths and weaknesses, after arriving at an analysis, a business can be put on the path of progress, achievement and profitability, which is very important in any business environment. Evolving any strategy in business and its implementation depends on a successful analysis of the internal and external factors.
Criticisms of SWOT Analysis
The main criticisms of SWOT analysis are as follows:
1.Analysis Depends on Circumstances: SWOT analysis is based on the analysis of the existing conditions. With the changing condition, the analysis becomes ineffective
2. Different Perception: SWOT analysis is dependent upon perception the marked factors. On the organisational level, the managers may possibly be at variance in terms of strengths/weaknesses and threats/opportunities and in such events, the effects of SWOT become remedial.
SWOT analysis creates an analytical faculty in an individual, a bus generates an awareness towards threats and opportunities. An evaluatie is also made by means of SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis also helps in the individual and managers in terms of perception and creativity.
Q.7. What is meant by interdependence? Discuss the model of interdependence.
Or Write a detailed note on vote’s model of interdependence.
Ans. Interdependence: Refer to Sec-A, Q.6.
Vote’s Model of Interdependence: In the age of modernisation, lependence: In the age of modernisation, there is an increase in cost and investment. As a result, the responsibilities are also on the rise. In business industry, any business organization is realizing its maximum capacity and its employees are also becoming increasingly conscious of their participation in the well being of their ogganisation. The pontential and policies through the mutual discussions and debates are also understood and worked out by the workforce with a sense of responsibility. The potential strength and capacity as well as the p to policies and working capacity which are important or significant from diverse social point of view, create a strong impact on the behaviour and perception of the employees of an organisation. When the emplovees sit together to discuss about their interdependence in an organisation, the impact tangible and strong.
Interdependence is the Sharing of Common Experience and a Common Fate
1. Minimum Interdependence: It refers to working of employees together at one workplace. Depending at least on one another may also be called as a collective interdependence.
2. Maximum Interdependence: It refers to the employees working in proximity with a common ideology and perception, engaged in sharing of their thoughts for the achievement of their objectives. This is known as maximum interdependence which can be seen in two ways:
(a) Social mutual interdependence, and
(b) Professional interdependence.
To promote maximum social interdependence, the members of one community establish rapport with the members of other community by means of social and psychological understanding and for establishing their social identity, trust and rely on one another. Under such interdependence, the members of different communities for the sake of their physical and personal competence depend on one another and also believe on each other and this belief enables them to knit together and work together with a sense of trust, cooperation and coordination.
In short, they have to encounter collectively new challenges to get promoted to higher ranks on the basis of the maximum and optimum productivity of their respective departments and work together with mutual trust and confidence.