B.Com 1st Year Writing Skills Very Short Question Answers Study Notes
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SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
Q.1. Give two advantages of complete message. (2017)
Ans. A message, through communication has to pass through many levels.There may be distortion or delay of the message. Loss of information occurs at various stages, In this way, message may reach in parts. But only complete message fulfils the sole purpose. Complete message fulfils the sole purpose. Complete message provides following advantages:
1. Business messages frequently use tables, charts, photos, diagram. Only in complete message,
they provide clear and condense information to explain something.
2. Business messages frequently persuade someone to purchase a product or service or adopta
plan of action. In these cases, complete message has advantage of effectiveness and message
solves the purpose as well.
Q.2. What do you mean by Editing? (2014,17)
Ans. Editing: After the first draft of the message, the process of editing starts and it is only after this last proof of the message is read. The following stages comes in the editing:
1. Editing for Effective Words: The words are selected with two criterias, i.e. correct and influential. The words selected should be correct in editing. The words used should be simple, clear and prevalent words.
2. Editing for Appropriate Sentences: Only those sentences should be used in letter writing which are appropriate, essential and related to the message. In other words, the sentences which create confusion in the mind of receiver, should be avoided.
3. Editing for Paragraph: Paragraphs are important part of the letter which develops the concept of the letter gradually. All the paragraphs should be interrelated with each other and the object of the letter. The size of the paragraph should be appropriate, i.e. neither too large or too small
Q.3. Write a short note on ‘First draft’.(2015)(2017)
Or What is the process of writing the first draft? What precautions should be kept in mind while writing the first draft?
Ans. Process of Writing the First Draft: After the proper planning and arrangement of letter, writing draft starts. Before this, there is no need to write anything. First draft is written in a summarised from the writer should initially decide what he has to communicate and in which arrangement and After deciding all this the writing of letter should be started. After writing the first draft space should be left over for the necessary correction. During the process of amendment useless lines or ideas space should be left over for the necessary correction. During the process of amendment useless lines or ideas are deleted and new ideas are included.
Precautions to be kept in Mind While Writing the First Draft: The various precautions whic Precautions to be kept in Mind While Writing the First should be considered while writing the first draft are as follows.
1. Style: Draft or letter should be prepared in suitable style. Style should be clear and grammatically correct. It should be prepared in such a manner that suitable amendments can be made according to order of the group which will save the time of writing of letter again.
2. Business Language: Business letter should be written in business language and manner. This language and manner is different for different situations. Some points should be considered for this:
(a) Don’t be too friendly.
(b) Don’t give advice.
(c) Don’t be over enthusiastic.
(d) Don’t unduly favour anybody.
(e) Behave within your limits.
3. You’ Attitude: One should write a letter with full respect and keeping in view the reader’s view. That’s why ‘you’ word should be stressed more in comparison to ‘l’ and ‘we’ in the business letter.
4. Positive Attitude: Draft should be made with a positive attitude, i.e. ‘What you can do or what should be done’ in place of what you can’t do or what shouldn’t be done’
5. Use of Impressive Words: Words used in the letter should be attractive and impressive to the reader otherwise he will not be influenced.
6. Courteous: A person should prepare a draft with courteous feeling. Even if any tension are there those should be resolved in a courteous manner.
Q.4. What are the different types of business letters? Explain, in brief, the important types of business letters.
Ans. According to the need and changes in the business situations and circumstances, business letters may be of many types. On the basis of the purpose of message, nature of message and expected reaction of receiver, business letters can be classified as follows:
1. Good News Letters: Good news letters are written to convey the pleasant news to the reader. These letters gain the positive reaction of the reader. Thus, a good news letter is a letter which conveys a positive message to the reader. Following information are included in the good news letters:
(a) Information regarding the acceptance of credit.
(b) Information regarding the acceptance of an order.
(c) Congratulation letters.
2. Bad News Letters: The letters which convey some unfavourable or unpleasant information to the reader, are termed as bad news letters. These letters convey the negative information to the reader. Following information may be included in the bad news letters.
(a) To reject an application or request.
(b) Declaration of unpleasant policies for the consumers.
(c) Negative assessment of demonstration.
3. Persuasive Letters: Persuasive letters are written when the reader is not ready to comply with the request. These letters are written in indirect way to persuade the reader for particular action. Such letters include proposals and recommendations, job application letter, circular letter, sales letters, etc. The main purpose of persuasive letters is to motivate the reader for desired action, to overcome his mental resistance and to build goodwill.
4. Request Letters: The letter which is written in the ordinary course of business activities to get a specific response from the reader is known as request letter. Business organisation has to write letters for getting things done through others. It may be to make enquiry regarding goods, to receive goods and letters written may be of the following types:
(a) Requesting routine information related with product.
(b) Request for a loan from a bank or a financial institution.
(c) Asking customers to give their opinion.
(d) Request letter to establish relationship with formal customer etc.
Q.5. Explain the functions or importance of business letters.
Ans. Business letters are highly useful in introducing trade relations and promoting business tran tansactions. They provide inexpensive and convenient means of communication without personal contact, provide evidence of transaction and help in creating good impression and functions or importance of business letters can be summarised as given below:
1. Widen Contracts: It is not possible for a business firm to send its representatives to each and every place of its connections. But it can approach all persons through letters. Thus, letters help the business to widen the area of operation.
2. Provide Record and Reference: Letters provide permanent record of dealings with customers, suppliers and other associated parties. These can be preserved for future reference also.
3. Evidence of Contracts: Business letters act as a valid document and evidence of the contracts between the two parties. These can be used as a documentary evidence in a court of law in case of disputes.
4. Building Goodwill: A good business letter helps to make a good image of the business. It creates a positive image among the readers and win friendliness of other parties.
5. Exchange of Information: With the help of letters, a business firm can exchange information of varied type with different parties. A business firm may send a letter enquiring about the credit status of a customer or it may send reply to such an enquiry from other firms.
For quantity, terms and conditions of sales, availability of goods, etc. he writes a letter of enquiry to the sellers. While writing enquiry letter, direct and straightforward approach should be used with positive and confident tone. Enquiry letter should be written in simple. clear and precise way saying about our requirements. At least, express your gratitude for the time, the reader has spent in reading the letter.
Q.6. give the differences between official letters and business letters.
Or distinguish between official letters and business letters.
Ans. Difference between official letters an business letters.
Q.7. Define office memorandum. Give a specimen of office memorandum.
Ans. Office memorandum are used in Government of Indian Ministry and Secretariat departments for communication of official information. In addition, it is also used for sending information to other department and subordinate departments/level. Office memorandum are also issued to employees for show cause notice etc. These are communicated in the form of order. Words like done, is done, should be done etc. are often used in office memorandum.
Specimen of Office Memorandum
Name of Ministry
Madhya Pradesh Government
Secretary, Name of Ministry
Madhya Pradesh Government
All departments of Madhya Pradesh Government.
Q.8. What is meant by format?(2017)
Ans. Format: The general layout, style and size of any publication is called as format. The general make-up of a book or an article, its size, shape, style and quality of paper all are included in the format. The word ‘format’ has been derived from Latin word ‘forma’ meaning a shape.
In the business field, format is used in business letters. The format of a letter is the way in which it is arranged and presented for a good and desired result from the side of receiver of message/letter. In the format of a good business letter, following essential constituents should find place:
2. Telephone No./Fax No.,
4. Reference No.
5. Addressee’s name of address,
6. Subject heading,
8. Body of letter,
9. Complimentary close,
10. Signature and designation,
12. Postscript (P.S).
A letter helps the writer to achieve the desired purpose if it is an can be formatted in one of the three styles:
1. Block format,
2. Modified block format,
3. Simplified format.
Q.9. What is sales letter? State its objectives. Explain with example.
Ans. Sales Letter: In the highly competitive business of today, publicity and advertisement have become essential for every business enterprise. Sales letters are a form of advertising that enable essman to approach potential customers easily and at low cost. As a sales letter is directly ressed to select a customer, it has a particular appeal and a personal touch. Sales letters are particularly useful in direct selling by mail.
Objectives of Sales Letters: Sales letters are written to achieve the following objectives:
1. To promote the sale of a product, a service or an idea.
2. To introduce new products in the market quickly, effectively and at a low cost.
3. To introduce the salesman to the potential customers.
4. To widen the market for existing products.
5. To remind the customer about the product or service.
6. To create and maintain a firm goodwill among the customers.
7. To secure orders for a mail order business house.
8. To serve as a silent salesman wherever a salesman cannot reach the customers.
9. To keep the customers in regular touch with the company and its products and services.
A Sales Letter Offering Shirts.
Super Textiles Ltd.
7, Nariman Point, Mumbai-400070
Date: Sept. 15, 20XX
Why to buy the inferior when you can get the best at the same price. Buy super shirts made specially from imported cotton for only 180 per piece.
Super textiles give you SUPER VALUE. Our shirts are stitched on the most modern computerised machine at an exclusive price of 180. Any where you would pay 30 more for a similar shirt.
SUPER SHIRT is a quality shirt and is offered at a popular price. It is the result of cooperative venture of super textiles and SPEARS of France. These shirts are available in ten colours in plain stripes and check.
SUPER SHIRTS are offered at exclusive price only for a limited period. Act now and save 30.
Q.10. What do you understand by request letter? Give an example of request letter
Ans. Request Letter: The letter which is written in the ordinary course of business activities to get a specific response from the reader is known as request letter. Business organisation has to write letters for getting things done through others. It may be to make enquiry regarding goods to receive goods letters written and may be of following types:
- Requesting routine information related with product.
2 Request to get agency dealerships.
- Request for a loan from a bank or a financial institution.
4 .Asking customers to give their opinion.
5. Request letter to establish relationship with formal customer etc.
Request for Agency
Date: 28 June 20XX
The General Manager
LG Electronics Ltd.
Sub.: Request for dealership in electronic items.
We are pleased to know that you are manufacturing electronic items under the trade mark ‘L.G. Here in Muzaffarnagar, we are running an electronic store since last 10 years. We are dealing with a large variety of electronic goods. There is a great demand of new models and items of electronics. We, therefore, are interested in getting a dealership of electronic items of a reputed manufacturer like you.
Please, let me know at the earliest the terms and conditions regarding above said agency business, so that I could think on joining you. It remains to state again that in case an opportunity for sale of product if once be given, your concern shall also be benefited to the desired extent.
Thanking you and expecting a favourable response.
Q.11. What is a circular letter? (2015)
Ans. A circular letter is opted by the sender when he wants to address it to large number of persons. It is meant for circulation in the general way i.e. public at large outside the organisation or most of employees within the organisation. In other words, circular letters are important source of communication within and outside the organisations. It is usually opted whenever a new product or service is launched, new shop is opened, new department is started, new branch office is opened etc.
Q.12. What are collection letters? Why are they written?
How should they be planned?
Or Write a note on collection letters.
Ans. Collection letters are the letters which are written with a view to collect the dues promptly. These letters are written to the customers who have not paid their bills on due dates. These letters are drawn in the manner that dues should be collected without distorting the relations with customers.
There may be a number of reasons of overdue accounts such as:
1. The bill may be lost or misplaced.
2. Customers may be in some unforeseen difficulty.
3. There may be a slip of mind as to due date.
4. Customers may have borrowed more than they can pay.
5. There may be some contradiction as to the amount or time of bill.
Purpose of Collection Letters
- To collect the amount due is the primary object of a collection letter. When a customer fails to pay the amount on due date, a collection letter should be sent to him.
- To maintain business relations is the second equally important object of Collection letters are designed in the manner that they may maintai debts.
Factors Affecting the Tone of Collection Letters
Tone of collection letter is an important factor to determine the extent to which it would be successful. Some factors should be considered properly before taking a pen in hand to write a collection letter. These factors are as under:
1. Amount due.
2. The period for which it is due.
3. Past track record of payments made by the customer.
4. Status of party owing the debt.
5. Intention of party owing the debt.
6. Probable reasons of the amount becoming overdue.
Planning of Collection Letters
Language and tone of collection letters depend upon a number of factors. It varies from person to person and time to time. Anyway, it should be successful in achieving its objectives: Collection of debt and maintaining business relations. Following guidelines may be helpful in drafting collection letters:
1. Language and tone of these letters should be positive, cheerful and optimistic.
2. The letter should make it clear to the debtor that it is for his own benefit to pay.
3. Style and tone of letter should be neither offensive nor submissive.
4. Collection letters should not be too brief. It should give required details of payment becoming due.
5. Debtor should not feel humiliated or insulted by the letter. 6. It should be remembered that a wrong approach may lose the customer.
Collection letters are written generally in a series. A number of letters may have to be written in the chain of collection of debt. Each successive letter is stronger in tone than its predecessor. These letters are sent at different intervals. In the first letter, a statement of account is sent to the debtor with a request to make the payment. In the second letter, he is reminded about the first letter and amount due. In the third letter, an appeal is made for making the payment on urgent basis. In the fourth letter, the customer is warned that if he still does not make payment, he will have to face legal action.
Q.13. Give the meaning of memo. How does it differ from a letter?
Or What is the meaning of memo?
Ans. Memo: Memo is a short form of the word Memorandum’ which is a derivative of a Latin word ‘Memorable’ that means ‘to tell. In fact, memo is a form of written message which is issued with a specific purpose to the employees working in the same organisation.
Difference between Letters and Memos
|S. No.||Basis of difference||Letters||Memos|
|1.||Letters written||Letter is written to persons outside the organisation.||Memo is written to the persons working within the organisation.|
|2.||Expression||Generally expression of the letters are formal.||There is no place of formality in the expression of a memo.|
|3.||Salutation||Salutation and complimentary close have a great importance in case of letters.||Salutation or complimentary close are avoided in case of memos.|
|4.||Draft||Special care should be taken while drafting letters.||There is no need of special care while writing memos.|
|5.||Language||Generally, the language of the letter is polite and appealing.||Memos are not supposed to be courteous.|
|6.||Contents||Letters need explanation and broad interpretation.||Memos are concerned with work information. These are written in specific and concise way|
Q.14. Write a short note on memo-format.(2014)
Ans. Memo-Format: The memo-format is different from that of a letter. Since a memo moves from one department to another or from one employee to another, it is essential to write the name of the person sending the memo and the name of the receipt and the designation or department of both the persons. It must also have reference numbers.
The words from and to are invariably used in a memo. There is no salutation and the writer’s signature is put without writing the subscription or complimentary close.
The memo is properly dated, is written in a direct style and is as brief as possible.
The tone of a memo should neither be very formal nor should it be so informal that it loses all seriousness. The three factors to be kept in mind while considering the tone are:
1. Who is going to read the memo.
2. The subject-matter of the memo.
3. The company house style.
A memo is not very different from a letter, only a memo being used within the organisation, the formal aspects of the letter are dispensed with. But like a letter, it must be clear, concise, courteous, etc. Even in negative message, courtesy should be observed as far as possible.
A Specimen of the Memo-Format
J. L. Morrion and Sons Ltd.
Inter Office Memo
| No.: ……………… |
Q.15. What do you understand by proposal? What are its objectives?
Ans. Proposal: A proposal refers to a discussion as a brief presentation of our ideas or viewpoints on a specific subject or in a particular context. In most of the cases, it is in a written form but we can present it orally too, in a concise and compressed expression, e.g., a company’ s proposal to another company in relation to an advertisement of a product.
Objectives of Proposals: The objectives of proposals are given below:
1. Sale and purchase of some property.
2. Giving bonus on the profits earned by a company.
3. To give benefit to the working employees of a company.
4. To ascertain and evaluate the working potential of a company.
5. Construction of a new building of a company.
Q.16. What is report writing? Discuss qualities of a good report writing.
Ans. Report Writing: In today’s busy society/environment, report writing occupies an important place. If a person has to do several meetings on a particular day, then a person needs some kind of noting which will help him in a proper conduct of such meetings, In the same manner, a person can report his performance through report writing to his boss/superior or a sales manager of a company appraise the salesman by the report writing about the sales work done by him So. report writing is the primary tool of media personnel through which they pass on specific information about a topic or an incident. (2015)
Qualities of a Good Report Writing: A good official or organisation report must have the following qualities.
1. Report should be based on true facts and figures.
2. Main points should be underlined or highlighted.
3. Report should be summarised.
4. Incidents should be arranged in a proper serial.
5. A good report is expected to be in simple and clear language. A simple language with the use of simple words is always desirable and useful because they are easily understandable.
6. A report is always written with a purpose in mind which must be fulfilled by a good reporter.
7. A report must be neutral, unbiased and objective as the personality of the writer should remain unaffected with the facts and figures cited in the report.
8. A report should be written nicely and correctly with comprehensive titles and submitted to facilitate an understanding of the statements. Each and every new aspect should be bracketed with the headings. Conclusion and recommendation should be stated at the end. A report must bear the signature of the writer and the date of the presentation.