B.Com 1st Year Writing Skills Short Question Answers Study Material 2018

B.Com 1st Year Writing Skills Short Question Answers Study Material 2018
B.Com 1st Year Writing Skills Short Question Answers Study Material 2018

B.Com 1st Year Writing Skills Short Question Answers Study Material 2018 :- In this post you will find B.Com all subject Notes Question Answer All semester Topic Wise chapter wise syllabus all the content Sample model Practice Paper Examination Paper previous year papers PDF Download for free

Section B

LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS

Q.1. What is meant by writing skills? Give the various steps of writing skills. Also give the guidelines for effective writing skills.

Or What do you understand by writing skills? What are the various steps of writing skills? (2018)

Ans. Writing Skills : Writing of letters, memos, reports, notices, etc. in a clear, simple, concise, courteous and attractive way which attract the attention of the reader and influence people to act or think accordingly is termed as writing skills. Writing skill is an important part of written communication. Effective writing is pre-requisite of existence in modern set up and success in any endeavour. Writing skill contributes to one’s success in any profession or business. To become successful, one should master the skill and art of expressing oneself clearly and precisely through written message. One’s excellence in writing skill determines the chances of influencing people, winning friends and gaining business.

Writing like any art spring from the inner most feelings. Clean and audible writing is a bridge between the mind of the writer and the reader. Effective writing enables the reader to understand the message in the same sense and spirit, that the writer wants to convey. As written communication occupies significant position in the organisation, the sender should pay proper attention to the writing skill. Effective business writing requires proper planning, hard work, concentration and practice.

Main Steps of Writing Skill

The four main steps of writing skill can be described as follows:

  1. Planning: First stage of writing skill, involves planning of the material to be written and facts to be collected. Before writing, the writer should decide in advance about the purpose and scope of written message and the desired response of the person to whom message is addressed. A plan for good writing should involve the following things: (a) purpose of written message (b) selection of thoughts (C) the person to whom it is written (d) desired response (e) collection of sufficient information and statistics.

2. First Drafting: In the second stage of message, first draft o thoughts are expressed in words and sentences and paragraphs are expressed in words and sentences and paragranhs are made. Writing first arant requires organising and outlining the matter in logical sequence steps. These outlines act as biueprints’ facilitating construction of the building. In simple words, process of the building. In simple words, process of putting words on paper is termed as first drafting. 

3. Amendment in the Drafting: After preparing the first draft,

Drafting: After preparing the first draft, it will be read again and necessary amendments should be made. Purpose of communication, object and the words used in writing should be evaluated again to make it effective. It shoud also be ensured that this written material is written from the reader’s point of view, not from writer’s point of view. Gramm view, not from writer’s point of view. Grammar, spelling, punctuation and construction of sentences should be checked properly to make writing effective.

4. Editing: Editing is a very important step in achieving writing skill because mistakes in writing can change the entire meaning of the sentence.It is seen in the editing whether the selection of words is appropriate or not, language of drafting is of high quality, there is no technical mistake format of drafting is perfect or not etc. Emotional content and tone is also changed accordingly and efforts are made to make the message logical, well-knit and effective.

Guidelines for Effective Writing: For effective writing, following points should be kept in mind:

1. Answer of Necessary Questions: For effective writing, necessary questions should be answered properly. For example (a) Why to write (b) Whom to write (c) What to write (d) Medium of writing and (e) Where and when to write.

Answer of these questions is necessary for effective writing.

2. Use Familiar Words: For effective writing, simple and familiar words should be used in place of difficult and unfamiliar words. Simple words make the better understanding of the written message.

3. Use Short Words In Place of Long Expressions: Short words are preferable instead of long and trite words. For example, in place of ‘enclosed herewith please find’ we will use the word ‘enclosed’ and in place of’with reference to’, word ‘refer’ should be used to make writing effective.

4. Use Strong Words: For effective writing, strong words should be used as they make an immediate impact on reader’s mind and the message becomes forceful. 

e.g.                  strong word                             weak words 

Boom                                      period of business prosperity 

Slump                                      period of decline in business 

Tycoon                                    very successful businessman. 

5. Avoid Technical Words or Jargon: Jargon refers to the special language of a particular trade or profession. This language is easily understood by the members of that professional group but cannot be understood by the outsiders. Therefore, efforts should be made to minimise its use while communicating the persons outside their group.

6. Keep the Paragraph Short: A short paragraph is clear and more effective than a long one. The average length of a paragraph should generally be eight’or nine lines. A paragraphs unity. Unity can be achieved by writing a paragraph around a single topic or idea. The supporting details should also be filled for the topic.

7. Avoid Needless Information: Unnecessary information should be avoided to make writing effective. The writer should keep in mind the needs of the reader rather than the information at his command.

8. Avoid Surplus Words: Very often we use words that add nothing to the meaning of the sentence. For example, “Three conditions should be fulfilled’, is better than ‘There are three conditions that should be fulfilled

9. Writing should be Practical and Logical: It is also to be remembered that writing should be done for practical and logical values as none likes to read impractical messages.

10. Make the Paragraph Move Forward: An effective paragraph is one that moves forward through logically connected sentences. This movement is brought about by our own clarity of thought, logical arrangement of ideas, smoothness in style, careful word choice and sentence structure and use of sentence connectors wherever needed.

11. Emphasise the Right Words: Proper emphasis should be given on the content of a sentence. This requires logical thinking. The writer must be clear about to know what he wants to convey and how.

Q.2. Discuss different standard parts of a business letter. Give a specimen of standard business

letter.

Or What are the various parts of business letter?

Or Describe with illustration different parts of a good business letter.(2014)

Or What do you mean by business letter? Draft a quotation letter.

Ans. Business Letter: Letters related with business affairs are termed as business letters. These letters help the businessman to build new relations and maintain the existing relations. A businessman writes letters to its customers, employees, other firms, associate concerns, credit agencies, government departments, etc. These letters are written to achieve a definite purpose such as selling product, making an enquiry, seeking information or advice, creating goodwill, etc.

According to Herbert Kassan, ‘Letters written for business affairs are known as business letters.

Parts or Structure of a Business Letter

Business letter is divided into several parts and each part of it contains specific significance. These parts should be well organised and constant in the same way as different parts of our body are interdependent and interrelated with each other. Usually, the business letter has the following parts:

1. Heading                                           2. Date

3. Reference                                       4. Inside Address

5. Salutation                                        6. Subject line

7. Body of letter or message              8. Complimentary close

9. Signature                                         10. Enclosure.

1. Heading: The heading of a letter consists of the printed letter heads, mentioning the name of the firm its address, telephone and e-mail address, symbols and trade marks. Generally, the name and the address of the company are given in the centre and its telephone, fax, e-mail numbers are mentioned on left or right side or both sides of address. A specimen of letter head is given here:

Telephone:                                                  Sumit Traders                     Fax:

Distributor

Telegram:                                         of National Fertilizers                    E-mail:

60/8, Vidhan Sabha Marg, Lucknow

2. Date: Every business letter must carry the date. It enables quick reference in future and help in prompt action and orderly filing. Date can be written in several ways such as,

Date: 14 Jan, 20XX (English Method)

Date: Jan 28, 20XX (American Method)

  • Reference: Reference number indicates the file number, the department to which the files has to go, the number of the letter and the year reference number is given on the left side below heading. It is usually written on:
  • Reference: 14/ DAV/XX

Reference: 17/order/XX

In the reference, 14 represents the number of letter, DAV represents that the end from the DAV and 14 stands for the year 20XX.

4. Inside Address: This part of the letter shows the name and the address of the person or firm to whom the letter has been addressed. It is given below the date line at the left margin. It helps the dispatcher to deliver the letter. Inside address must be written exactly as it is written on the envelope.

5. Salutation: Below the inside address, complementary &

low the inside address, complementary greeting, which is called salutation is written. This salutation depends upon the writer’s relationship with the recipients of such letter.

Sir or Madam: Used in case of more formal relations.

Dear Sir or Dear Madam: This is most commonly used Salutation for business letter.

6. Subject Line: It is customary to mention the subject to which the letter relates in between the Salutation and the body of the letter. It helps a reader in understanding the contents of letter at a glance.

Sub.: Inquiry regarding education loan.

Specimen form of Letter Parts

Letter headDate lineReferenceInside Address …………………… …………………… …………………… Salutation Line …………….Subject Line ………………..Body of a Letter ………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Complimentary CloseSignature (Name) Enclosures…………………………………………………………………………

7. Body of a Letter: This is the most important part of the letter as it contains the message. The Materials In this part should be arranged and organised carefully. The subject body of a letter is usually divided into three parts:

(a) Opening or introductory paragraph

(b) Main part or important message

(c) Closing paragraph deals with conclusions.

The opening paragraph usually deals with reference to earlier correspondence. Main part of the  message in summary and inspire receiver to act upon it.

8. Complimentary Close: As a letter starts with a respectable salutation, it must end with respectable compliments. This is conventional and polite way of ending the letter. The commonly used complimentary closing expressions are as follows:

Yours sincerely

9. Signature: Letter is assumed completed when signature is duly made by the writer thereupon. Liability of letter is determined with the Signatory person. The signature should be written in hand by the writer of the letter.

10. Enclosures: All additional paper documents, invoice cheque/draft etc. attached with a letter are termed as enclosures.

Q.3. Write a detailed note on memo. 

Or Explain the meaning, features and types of memo. Also give their format.

Or What are the different types of memo? Explain the difference between letters and memos. 

Ans. Memo: Refer to Sec. A, Q.13. 

Features of Memo: The features of memo are as follows:

1. Layout of Memo: There are four pieces of information of a memo. These information may be arranged in any order: 

Memo

To: Date: 

From: Subject: 

2. Notation: If the same message is to be sent to a number of persons or departments, a list is appended after the words. As per List’ or ‘See Below’. In such list, names of persons or departments may be arranged either in alphabetical order or rank order. Sometimes memos may be addressed to a group of persons: All heads of departments, All managers, All supervisors, etc.

3. Direct and Indirect Message: Memos can be used to communicate both the direct and indirect messages. If the message is direct, its language should be concise and simple. If the message is indirect, it may be little, lengthy and formal.

4. Subject Line: A memo should contain subject line also so that the issue on which a memo is issued, may be clear. It helps the officials and colleagues in understanding the subject of memo easily and quickly.

5. Informal: Since the memos are used in the course of routine affairs within an organisation, they are free from formalities. They do not require a complimentary close or signature. They may be handwritten or typed or printed, whatsoever available.

6. Delivery: Memos may be delivered by hand or by post or through inter-office mail. Acknowledgement of memo may or may not be required. 

Types of Memo

1. Routine Message Memo: These memos are used to send routine messages. These are very concise and simple. These do not observe much formalities.

2. Intra-office Memo: Intra-office memos are used for sending information within a given office. These memos can be used to cater the needs of an office. These memos can be changed and updated according to office situations and circumstances. These can be formal as well as informal.

3. Inter-office Memo: These memos are used for sending information from one office to another. These messages relate to organisational matters. Therefore, these memos are little formal.

4. ‘A’ and ‘B’ Message Memo: ‘A message means a positive message (good news message). ‘B’ message means a negative message (bad news message or complaint). These memos are specific, direct and clear. They may provide a place for written message also.

Difference between letters and Memos

S.No. Basis of difference Letters Memos
1. Meaning A letter is a written form of communication, generally with outsiders. Memo is a written message exchanged by employees within and organisation.
2. Form of  Communication Letters are used for communication with outsiders. Memos are used for communication within the organisation.
3. Formality Letters are formal. Memos are informal.
4. Matter Letters are written in details. Memos are not specific and concise.
5. Courtesy Letters are courteous and follow certain etiquettes. Memos are not supposed to be so courteous. Practise of business etiquettes does not apply on memo.

Format Of Memo

Memo formats may be printed or typed or handwritten. Most organisations use memo forms printed with date, name of sender, name of recipient and space for subject. Standard format of memo is given ahead:

Memo Date: ……………… To: ………………… From: ………………….. Dept: ………………. Telephone ………….. Subject…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………. APPROVAL INFORMATION COMMENT  
Swati Textiles Ltd. To: …………… File: ………………….. From: …………. Date: ……………….. Dept: ……………… Subject ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Q.4 What planning should be adopted to respond favourable to claims and adjustment request? Illustrate your answer with the help of an imaginary letter,

Ans. Planning to Respond to Claims and Adjustment Request

An adjustment letter is written in response to a complaint letter and tell the customer what the company intends to do about the complaint. Adjustment letter actually provides the company an excellent opportunity to build goodwill. Such adjustment letter can both repair any damage done an restore the customer’s confidence in the company.

Even if the complaint is unreasonable, the response and tone of the ce ustomer. Problem should not be emphasised but the responsibility should be taken on. Focus must be done on what hte company is doing to correct the problem. Company should settle such matters quickly and courteously and always try to satisfy the customer at a reasonable cost.

Adjustments should be granted graciously. As a settlement made grudgingly will do more harm than good. Not only company must be gracious but must also acknowledge the error in such a way that the customer will not lose confidence in the company. Emphasize the line which the reader will consider good news, such as ‘Enclosed is a replacement for the damaged part’, or ‘Please accept our apologies for the error which crept in your account.

To explain that customer feedback helps the firm keep the quality of its product or service high. If an explanation will help restore reader’s confidence, explain what caused the problem. Point out the steps which might be taken to prevent a recurrence of the problem. Letter should be closed at a pleasant ending looking forward and not back. Avoid recalling the problem at closing paragraph.

B.Com 1st Year Writing Skills Short Question Answers Study Material 2018

Imaginary Letter of Adjustment

(while the company is at fault)

Deep Internet Corporation Ltd.

Soochna Marg

Lodhi Road, New Delhi-110003.

20 June 2017 

Mr Abhijit Singh 

52, Karol Bagh Metro Station 

Delhi-60 

Dear Mr Singh, 

We are sorry that your experience without customer support helpline did not go smoothly. We are eager to restore your confidence in our services. Your next three months of Internet access will be complimentary as our sincere apology for your unpleasant experience. We can understand our customers disappointment when our staff don’t provide quality service. To prevent similar problems in future, we plan to use your letter in training session with customer support personnel. 

We do appreciate your keen interest to write to us. It helps us receive comments such as yours. 

Truly yours, 

Sd: 

(K.V. Thomas) 

Media Deputy Director

Customer Support Services 

Q.5. Draft a collection series, three in number starting with a formal notification of a debt and ending with a hint at legal proceedings.(2017) 

Ans. Collection Letters: These letters are written in series. The series allows the writer to increase pressure slowly. A person will finally take a requested action if he is reminded often enough, and with increasing pressure, that he has to do it. The pressure should be increased gradually. The series allows the writer to do this gently from letter to letter. These letters must have inherent idea that it is to his own advantage to settle the account. Following are the three formats of such letters that gradually persuade the debtor to deposit his due amount:

First Letter of Collection Series

Dear Sir, 

Our letters of the 20th and 22nd, calling attention to our bill of Rs 10,500 have not brought any reply from your side. 

We are afraid you might have some reason to be dissatisfied with our goods. This probably

keeps you from settling the account. If so, please let us know and we shall be glad to make a suitable adjustment. 

If, on the other hand, you are satisfied with our delivery of your goods. Please send us the payment so that your account may be fresh for your next order.

Expecting your prompt action and quick reply. 

Faithfully yours

Second Letter of Collection Series

Dear Sir, 

Since you have not replied to our letter of 1st of August asking when replied to our letter of 1st of August asking whether you are satisfied with our product. We assumed that everything was all right. Our bill of Rs, 500 still remains unpaid.

We are prepared to accept the said payment by instalments, if you feel con business associate please do not hesitate to tell us if you are facing difficulties in disposing or the goods. We can relieve you of part of the burden by accepting the return of unsold goods. We can together work out a plan for the settlement of the account without too much strain or resources. 

Surely, we can tide over temporary difficulties in cooperation. 

Faithfully yours

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